Monday, 21 September 2015

Camera Shots and techniques

Camera Shots and techniques

Extreme long shot:

The extreme long shot can be used as an establishing shot within TV drama. an establishing shot is used to communicate to the audience where the scene is taking place, which characters are involved, it's time and location. The establishing shot is usually used at the beginning of a TV drama as it provides the audience with a setting for the beginning of the storyline. 

Long Shot:

The long shot usually follows and establishing shot and gives the audience a view of a character from head to toe. This allows the audience to see the relationship between the character within the story and their environment that is set in the establishing shot.

Mid Shot:

This shot gives a view of the character from the waist upwards, making them become comfortable with the character. The audience become comfortable with the character as they can engage with their emotions, facial expression and body language.

Two shot:

The two shot contains two characters who are usually communicating in some way. This shot expresses that relationship and is used in things such as TV chat shows.

Close up:

The audience will only see the head and shoulders of the character with very little background, which means that all of the attention is focused in on the character. By doing this, the audience will have a clear view of the characters emotions through facial expression. This could also be used to show an item of significance within the show.

Point of view:

This is used as a reference to the close up shot, therefore it usually follows on from the close up. This gives the audience context following a close up and it allows us to engage more with the character and understand their motives within the narrative.

Extreme close up:

This shot focuses all of the attention onto the characters face, especially the eyes or on an item of significance. This creates a sense of intensity for the audience as it is an unfamiliar perspective which places the audience in an awkward position which may feel uncomfortable - adding to the intensity.

High angle shot:

The high angle shot gives a the character a sense of vulnerability as we as an audience are looking down on them, seemingly giving us the higher ground, therefore a feeling of authority over them. This kind of shot is used in scenes of confrontation to show how small the character looks and feels or in scenes where the character we are focusing on is physically defeated.

Low angle shot:

The low angle shot gives the opposite effect to the high angle shot and makes us as an audience feel vulnerable as we are forced to look up at the character, emphasising their height and signifying their authority and importance. Movies with characters such as superheroes and villains will use this shot a lot to show power and strength along with making the audience feel slightly intimidated and at the mercy of the character on screen.

Tracking shot:

The camera during this shot will be mounted on a dolly on a track which will follow the character or object of significance at a constant distance throughout the shot. This draws in the audience and helps them to feel as though they are a part of the narrative as they are following the character into their narrative.

Sideways tracking/crab shot:

This shot is the same as a tracking shot, only the camera will only follow from side to side and can be used at a closer distance to the character. This shot is mainly used to show the character going to or leaving a scene. The crab shot can show the audience specific areas of the body such as the feet when the character is walking to show the character moving from place to place whilst creating a sense of mystery as we do not see the rest of the character.

Tilt shot:

This shot is similar to a panning shot only the camera moves vertically rather than horizontally. This kind of shot can be used in a similar way to a low angle shot, by tilting upwards from a low angle shot, it can emphasise a person or objects importance, authority and power. Eg: this kind of shot could start at the bottom of a building and pan upwards to show the sheer height and mass of the building, showing importance and significance towards it.


The zoom shot can be used to alter the audiences perspective by bringing them closer or further away from a character or object of significance. Also, the focus of the camera can change, creating a depth of focus by blurring the object in the background and focusing on the character or object in the foreground or vice versa. This can gently introduce the audience to a new scene or give them context as to where or what the character is doing. It makes us aware of their surroundings which aids the narrative.

Arc Shot:

This is similar to a tracking shot, only the camera follows in a rough semicircle or circle around the character or characters, as this shot is usually used in scenes where a group conversation is being held as it allows thee audience to witness the reactions of each character and we can then see everything that the scene has to offer us. It can also change our perspective as we can start out looking over the shoulder of one character, giving us insight into their perspective and end up behind the shoulder of the person opposite, therefore the audience sees the scene from a different point of view.

Crane shot:

The crane shot allows for a wide range of movement in terms of perspective, as the camera will mounted on a crane which is balanced by a heavy weight, meaning that the camera can be moved in almost any way possible. This shot is effective as you can capture a wide range of movements and perspectives which can draw in the audience using fluid camera technique which can vary in terms of perspective. This means that conventional technique can be broken and the director/camera operator has more freedom in terms of creative cinematography.

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